Diarrhea; In the 1800s the word was used as an umbrella term to describe watery stools that are not associated with a particular condition. According to the census report, 7,850 people died of diarrhea in 1860. Today, people still die of the consequences of diarrhea, in particular dehydration.

Whooping Cough; The infection can last a long time, and it was a big killer in the 1800s. According to the 1860 census, 8,408 people died of whooping cough in America. The disease was particularly fatal among infants, totaling 5% of total children's deaths that year.

Convulsions; Back then, convulsions was an umbrella term used to describe any condition that caused spasms, including epilepsy, tetanus, and neonatal seizures. These were often more fatal in children (especially in newborns and those under age one). Records show that 9,077 Americans died of convulsions in 1860

Cephalitis;  Cephalitis, also known as "brain fever" back then, was responsible for the death of 10,399 Americans in 1860.

Dysentery; Infection can be prevented by washing one's hands after using the toilet. Nearly 10,500 people died of dysentery in 1860. That's more than those who suffered from diarrhea alone.

Old age; Dying of old age in the 1800s is quite something, considering the health risks such as poor sanitation and lack of vaccination, among others. It might be worth mentioning that some of these 'old' people were less than 50 years old.

Remittent fever; Remittent fever can be described as a fever without a stable pattern, i.e. it fluctuates by more than a couple degrees throughout the day. Yes, it's usually a symptom of an underlying condition (e.g. malaria). Remittent fever is responsible for killing 11,120 people back in 1860.

Dropsy; While doctors back then knew that dropsy was a symptom, many times they just couldn't figure out the causes. Dropsy claimed 12,090 lives in 1860.

Typhoid fever; it basically spreads through feces. So yes, sanitation and washing hands was not Americans' forte in the 1800s.. A total of 19,236 people died of typhoid fever in 1860.

Croup; Croup is essentially a cough where the voice box and windpipe become swollen. Croup was a big killer in the US in 1860, with a total of 15,211 people dying form it. The vast majority (around 90%) of these deaths were children under the age of five.